The Ethics of Abortion

In recent news, women of Northern Ireland are now able to get free abortions on the NHS in Britain. At present, in Northern Ireland, abortions are only allowed if the mother’s life is in danger or if there is a serious risk to her mental or physical health. Hundreds of women are forced to travel from Northern Ireland to England in order to get an abortion, this is costly and can be incredibly difficult for women.

In many religions and cultures, people believe that abortions should not be allowed unless there are extreme circumstances, for example, if a woman has been raped. Many believe that abortions result in an unlawful killing of a person and can be compared to murder. However, with current laws, in the UK abortions can be carried out until 24 weeks, but in some circumstances, it can be carried out later.

In the UK we are incredibly fortunate to have abortions available on the NHS, in countries like America many women are forced to carry out abortions by themselves at home or at a reduced price locally, but this is very dangerous.

At present, there is no scientific consensus as to when life begins so one can not truly say that women who want an abortion are killing or endangering a child as there is still a debate as to when life begins. Many pro-life advocates believe that life starts at fertilization, others believe it starts when limbs appear or when a major organ system assimilates.

However, the rights of the mother should not be put under the rights of an unborn fetus, The woman is alive and well and we should not undermine her rights and ability to make decisions by putting a zygote in front of her life and decisions. In addition, should we really bring a child into an overpopulated world and one in which its mother was forced to conceive it? Human rights violations in terms of the fetus are dependent on the age of the fetus, below 24 weeks the rights of the mother should be prioritized. However as the mother comes closer to full term, we must consider the human rights violations brought about by the death of a fetus.

Many pro-life supporters believe that abortion is a form of infanticide, which is the unlawful killing of children. Many countries are rife with female infanticide which is gender-based killing, People often kill female babies as traditionally, women were forced to live with their husband’s parents leaving their own parents without someone to care for them. This problem is especially prevalent in China after the one-child policy, which prompted many to kill and abandon female babies in order to try to conceive a male. In some countries, males are also more desired in rural areas as they are seen to be better workers. Abortions on the basis of sex are not lawful and in most cases, the sex of the child cannot be found before 24 weeks.

References:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/abortion

http://ethics.sandiego.edu/presentations/AppliedEthics/Abortion/abortion.pdf

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-40438390

http://www.prochoiceactionnetwork-canada.org/abortioninfo/misconce.shtml

http://www.csus.edu/indiv/g/gaskilld/ethics/abortion.htm

 

Invasive Lobular Carcinoma

Invasive Lobular Carcinoma is the second most common type of breast cancer and accounts for 8% to 14% of breast cancers, after Invasive Ductal Carcinoma. Carcinoma describes cancer occuring in the epithelial or lining layer of cells, almost all cases of breast cancer are carcinomas. The carcinoma can either be in the milk ducts or in the lobules and in some cases can be in both areas. ILC is characterised by small rounded cells that be difficult to find on mammograms as they do not readily form masses.

In this case, cancer has spread to surrounding tissues after being generated in the milk-producing lobules of the breast. It is invasive as it invades other parts of the breast. Over time, ILC can spread to the axillary lymph nodes, most commonly those situated under the armpits.

It is most common in women between the ages of 45 to 55, however, women outside of this range can develop ILC in some cases.

Symptoms include:

  • an area of thickening or swelling
  • a change in the nipple, for example if it turns inwards (inverted)
  • a change in the skin, such as dimpling or thickening

 

IF YOU EXPERIENCE ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMS OR OTHERS ASSOCIATED WITH BREAST CANCER, SEE YOUR DOCTOR IMMEDIATELY.

Mammograms, which are x-rays of the breasts, are usually used to diagnose breast cancer. Additionally, you could have a biopsy or an MRI scan, this is dependent on your physician.

In some cases a lumpectomy may be carried out, which is where the tumour/mass is removed without deconstruction of the breast. In some cases, a mastectomy is advised, especially if the tumours are relatively large. Many women also have their lymph nodes removed as a precaution or if the cancer has spread.

After surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy and hormone therapy may be used to treat cancer and can be a preventative measure. For some women, a hormone imbalance can cause uncontrolled growth of cancer cells so hormone therapy using oestrogen is used to reduce risk of recurrence.

Some breast cancers contain HER2/neu which is a growth-promoting protein that can cause the cancer to spread more quickly. Drugs that target the HER2 protein include Herceptin, a type of monoclonal antibody (antibody produced from a single clone of B cells), Tykerb, Perjeta and Kadcyla.

Testing of the sample can be done using immunohistochemistry (using antibodies that stick to the HER2 protein causing cells affected to change colour) and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (fluorescent DNA pieces stick to the HER2 gene, cells affected can be counted under a microscope).

References and Additional Information:

http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/types/ilc/subtypes

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/breast_center/breast_cancers_other_conditions/invasive_lobular_carcinoma.html

https://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/bcr767

https://www.cancer.org/treatment/understanding-your-diagnosis/tests/understanding-your-pathology-report/breast-pathology/breast-cancer-pathology.html

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/breast-cancer/stages-types-grades/types/invasive-lobular-breast-cancer