A fracture is a condition, where the continuity of a bone is broken. A fracture can be open or closed, broken or unbroken. Each type is treated slightly differently. Low bone density and osteoporosis which cause weak bones, can lead to broken limbs, however falls, car crashes and other accidents can cause fractures. In some cases, overuse of limbs can cause a fracture.

With every fracture, it is vital to go to the hospital and to get an x-ray to see the nature of it. However, in some cases e.g.broken toes, treatment can be done effectively at home. if there is someone with an experience or knowledge of broken toes in the household. The people who are most at risk of having a fracture, are young children and people over 50 and those with underlying medical conditions.

Symptoms include:

  • Intense pain
  • Deformity – the limb looks out of place
  • Swelling, bruising, or tenderness around the injury
  • Numbness and tingling
  • Problems moving a limb
  • Angulation
  • Discoloured skin

Other types of fracture:

  • Comminuted fracture – shattered bone
  • Avulsion fracture – muscle pulls on bone, breaking it
  • Hairline fracture – partial fracture
  • Pathological fracture – underlying disease, weakens the bone
  • Greenstick fracture – fractures on one side of the bone


  1. Rest
  2. Ice
  3. Compression
  4. Elevation

The goal is to bring the swelling and pain of the patient under control, as quickly as possible. In most cases, immobilisation needs to be used, to prevent the bones from moving, and the fracture from causing more pain or potentially becoming worse. Usually, plaster casing is used to stabilise the fracture over a period of around 6 weeks. Traction is used to align the bones in the correct place and external fixation is used where metallic pins and screws are placed into the bone above and below the fracture sight. In very serious cases, surgery may be required such as open reduction and internal fixation procedures.

Fractures take several months to heal and even after the cast has been taken off the bone may still not be as it was before the fracture occurred.






Asperger’s Syndrome is a developmental disorder that affects how people interact with others, verbally and non-verbally. Over 1 in 100 people in the UK are affected by Asperger’s Syndrome and it appears to affect more men than women.

The exact cause of Asperger’s Syndrome is unknown, but it is on the autism spectrum. People who have Asperger’s usually have above average intelligence and don’t have as many problems with speech and communication as people with other types of autism.

Symptoms can include:

  • Social skills problems.
  • Restricted or repetitive behaviours.
  • Unusual preoccupations or rituals.
  • Communication difficulties.
  • Limited range of interests.
  • Coordination problems.
  • Skilled or talented.
  • Appear to be sensitive.

Studies suggest that Asperger’s is a genetic condition, and is passed down through families. Schools attempt to diagnose children and can provide support at an early age. A speech/language therapist and paediatrician usually work together for diagnosis.

Symptoms can diminish as children hit their teenage years, and in some cases, social skills that may have been lacking previously can be learnt. Teenagers with Asperger’s Syndrome may find that in some cases and most social situations they can be overly trusting and a little naive.




Vaccination is the appropriate addition of disease antigens into the body through injection or by mouth, in order to stimulate an immune response against a disease. The introduced material is called a vaccine.

The antigens, which are small proteins on the surface of cells, stimulate an immune response, producing memory cells. This results in the rapid production of antibodies which mean that the next time someone encounters the disease they may not even experience any symptoms.

Immunisation can save lives and lead to herd immunity which eventually leads to the eradication of the disease. Despite, apprehensions, vaccinations are in fact incredibly safe and effective. Around 15 years ago, millions of parents were caught in a fear mongering scandal which hinted at an idea that vaccination lead to autism in children of around 2-5 years old. However, in reality there was very little evidence of them actually being linked. Serious side effects are rare, however can occur. Immunisation aids to protect future generations from the diseases we suffer from today, for example, the smallpox vaccination has lead to the eradication of the diseases world wide.

Other reservations of vaccination, excluding fear of autism, include the fact that testing is carried out on animals such as mice and in some cases involves inducing cancer in some of the mice. This animal testing usually leads to the death of the mammal. Many vaccinations are also accompanied by unknown side effects which in some cases are only picked up upon when the vaccination is fed to the masses. It can also be very difficult to produce enough vaccinations for the population, whilst also being cost effective.



Almost every one in the UK has suffered from some form of anxiety within their lives, of differing severities. For some, this may be when giving a speech, for others it could be simply talking to a friend. No matter the severity, anxiety is a severe mental health issue which when ignored and lead to health complications.

Anxiety is most commonly used to describe feelings of discomfort and uneasiness. It is induced by the bodies flight or fight response which is triggered in stressful situations, it releases cortisol. This excess of hormones and adrenaline leads to the uneasy and sickening feeling that accompanies anxiety as we are not making use of the hormone.

Anxiety disorder can affect mental health and is usually accompanied by:

  • Feelings of panic, fear, and uneasiness.
  • Panic attacks
  • Problems sleeping.
  • Cold or sweaty hands or feet.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Heart palpitations.
  • Not being able to be still and calm.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet.


Generalised anxiety disorder is most commonly observed, it is a long-term condition that causes you to feel anxious about a wide range of situations and issues, rather than one specific event.

There are number of different causes of anxiety, which include:

  • Overactivity in certain areas of the brain.
  • Imbalance in hormones.
  • Genetic conditions.
  • Having a history of traumatic experiences, especially in childhood.
  • Having a history of drug, alcohol abuse.


Treatment is generally varied, but can include:

  • Psychological therapy.
  • Medication, e.g. antidepressants.
  • Exercising regularly.
  • Stopping smoking.
  • Cutting down on the amount of alcohol and caffeine you drink.